The pn junction diode is a twoterminal device, which is formed when one side of the pn junction diode is made with ptype and doped with the ntype material. In this article, my objective is to take you through the invention story of pn junction diode. When the diode is forwardbiased, it can be used in led lighting applications. Read more pn junction diode and its working principle. The pn junction diode has two terminals called electrodes, one each from pregion and nregion. After having known about various components, let us focus on another important component in the field of electronics, known as a diode.
Working of pn junction diode if an external potential is applied to the terminals of pn junction, it will alter the potential between the p and nregions. Smith context this lecture will discuss zdiode currents in forward and reverse bias 6. The forward voltage drop is an intrinsic property of the semiconductor material used to make the pn junction and is related to the band gap. Junction diodes solidstate device theory electronics.
Doping with acceptor creates p type semiconductor while doping with donors produces n type. Reverse biased v anode pn junction diode is the basic semiconductor diode format. The thicknesses of the depletion region are not the same with xn. Semiconductor, silicon, pn junction, forward bias, reverse bias, diode. The p positive side contains an excess of holes, while the n negative side contains an excess of electrons in the outer shells of the electrically neutral atoms there. It is the most essential and the basic building block of the electronic device.
A pn junction with open terminals excluding minority carriers f. Silicon a single silicon atom consists of fourteen negatively. Pn junction theory a pnjunction is formed when an ntype material is fused together with a ptype material creating a semiconductor diode in the previous tutorial we saw how to make an ntype semiconductor material by doping a silicon atom with small amounts of antimony and also how to make a ptype semiconductor material by doping another silicon atom with boron. The diode is firmed by doping a semiconductor like silicon or germanium with trivalent impurity e. The arrow direction in the diode symbol indicates a. Most of the commercial leds are realized using a highly doped n and a p junction. Reconfigurable pn junction diodes and the photovoltaic. Since a junction forms between a p type and n type material it is called as pn junction.
Theory a semiconductor pn junction diode is a two terminal electronic device that allows current in only one direction. The behaviour of a diode in a circuit is given by its iv characteristics. The objective of this experiment is to measure the iv curve for pn junction diode and to understand the characteristics of pn junction. Why does the junction current in forward bias increase. Pn junction diode baising and its vi characteristics. A pn junction diode is twoterminal or twoelectrode semiconductor device, which allows the electric current in only one direction while blocks the electric current in opposite or reverse direction. Apr 05, 2019 working of pn junction diode if an external potential is applied to the terminals of pn junction, it will alter the potential between the p and nregions. A pn junction is formed when an ntype material is fused together with a ptype material creating a semiconductor diode. Working of pn junction diode with biasing, characteristics. Diode pn junction when p and n type silicon are brought together during manufacture, a junction is created where the p type and n type materials meet, and holes close to the junction in the p type silicon are attracted into negatively charged n type material at the other side of the junction. It is used for many forms of rectification for current levels both large and small, as well as high and low voltage levels, and it finds many uses in all manner of electronic circuits. A pn junction diode is one of the simplest semiconductor devices around, and which has the characteristic of passing current in only one direction only. Pn junction diode and diode characteristics electronicstutorials.
As the newly formed component can have two terminals or electrodes one connected to ptype and the other to the ntype it is called as diode or pn junction diode or semiconductor diode. This pn diode applications are very useful for beginners. A pn junction diode is a twoterminal electronics element, which can be classified as either step graded or linear graded. A pn junction diode biased by an external voltage source with a source resistance rs, and a noise equivalent circuit. Basic electronics pn junction forward and reverse bias duration. Range of tunnel diode voltage for which the slope of the characteristics is ve is between v p and v v option c 11. Jan 21, 2019 vi characteristics of pn junction diode. The pn junction solidstate device theory electronics. However, unlike a resistor, a diode does not behave linearly with respect to the applied voltage as the diode has an exponential currentvoltage iv relationship and therefore we can not described its operation by simply using an equation such as. If we join a piece of p type material to a pieceof n type material such that the crystalstructure remains continuous at the boundary, a pn junction is formed 2. Semiconductor pn junction diodes physically, diodes are formed by the interface between two regions of oppositely doped semiconductor i. Pn junction diode in the reversebiased configuration is sensitive to light from a range between 400nm to nm, which includes visible light. One of the most common applications of the diode is the pn junction.
When the ntype semiconductor and ptype semiconductor materials are first joined together a very large density gradient exists between both sides of the pn junction. The word diode can be explained as di means two and ode is obtained from electrode. The diode conducts when forward bias is applied and it will introduce zero resistance in the circuit. To connect the n and pregions to the external terminals, a metal is applied to the heavily doped n and ptype semiconductor regions. This potential difference can alter the flow of majority carriers, so that the pn junction can be used as an opportunity for the diffusion of electrons and holes. The result is that some of the free electrons from the donor impurity atoms begi. From those good responses, i assume my attempt has been successful to some extent. Definition, symbol, and types of diodes electrical4u. Image source forward biasing a pn junction diode is very simple. Ptype is formed because of trivalent doping impurity. Jan 29, 2019 pn junction diode is one of the fundamental elements in electronics. Pn junctions consist of two semiconductor regions of opposite type.
They are referred to as photoelectrons and photoholes the applied voltage separates the photocarriers attracting electrons toward. Pn junction theory charge representation, ptype, ntype. Pn junction diode applications pn diode applications. The name diode is derived from diode which means a device that has two electrodes. A pn junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, ptype and ntype, inside a single crystal of semiconductor. What happens when we join ptype and ntype semiconductors. A pnjunction is formed when an ntype material is fused together with a ptype material creating a semiconductor diode. A pn junction of two different materials in the open circuit case. Najmabadi, ece65, winter 2012 high concentration of h on the p side holes diffuse towards the junction high concentration of e on the n side electrons diffuse towards the junction n side is positively charged because it has lost electrons. If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the ptype semiconductor and the negative terminal of the battery is connected to the ntype semiconductor, the diode is said to be in forward bias. When carriers are injected across a forwardbiased junction, it emits incoherent light.
Semiconductor physics semiconductors and diodessemiconductors. By exploring the electrical properties of silicon, it is possible to acquire an understanding of the inner workings of the pn junction. Theory of pn junction diode, diode current equation. Photodetectors pn junction can detect light when reverse biased ptype ntype when the light illuminates the pn junction, the photons energy releases free electrons and holes. A diode allow electric current to pass in forward direction and block current in reverse direction. You just need to take a battery whose values can be varied from o to v volts, connect its positive terminal to the pside of pn junction diode and then connect the negative terminal of battery to the nside of the pn junction diode. Normally the voltage is taken along the xaxis and current along yaxis.
A pnjunction diode is formed when a ptype semiconductor is fused to an ntype semiconductor creating a potential barrier voltage across the diode junction. Chapter 1 semiconductor pn junction theory and applications. However, unlike a resistor, a diode does not behave linearly with respect to the applied voltage as the diode has an exponential currentvoltage iv relationship. Smith department of eecs university of california, berkeley eecs 105 spring 2004, lecture 20 prof. The pn junction is the fundamental building block of the electronic age. The pn junction is a versatile element, which can be used as a. Pn junction tutorial introduction to pn junction diodes. We can then fill in the junction region of the band diagram as. P n junction theory and diodes part i gate problems. Pn junction diode is a device made of two semiconductor material joined together with the required amount of impurity. Direction of hole flow direction of conventional current c.
Octavian florescu 2 the pn junction diode schematic diagram ptype ntype id. The pn junction has the very useful property that electrons are only able to flow in one direction. A semiconductor diode is a two terminal electronic component with a pn junction. Questions you should be able to answer by the end of todays lecture. The pn junction is the root for semiconductor diodes. The diode is simple in its basic concept, being formed from the junction of ntype and ptype materials, although in reality the manufacture and theory of operation are more. A pn junction diode is made by forming a ptype region of material directly next to a ntype region. Also, it explains the phenomenon of shockleyqueisser limit. In the previous tutorial we saw how to make an ntype semiconductor material by doping a silicon atom with small amounts of antimony and also how to make a ptype semiconductor material by doping another silicon atom with boron. To find cutin voltage for silicon pn junction diode. Based on the required conditions one can easily say that there are two types of materials involved in a single crystal to interface in such a way that pn junction has formed.
The anode which is the positive terminal of a diode is represented with a and the cathode. They are also called pn diodes in analogy with vacuum diodes. The ideality factor also called the emissivity factor is a fitting parameter that describes how closely the diodes behavior matches that predicted by theory, which assumes the pn junction of the diode is an infinite plane and no recombination occurs within the spacecharge region. A semiconductor diode is the most common type diode, which is a piece of semiconductor material with a pn junction connected to two terminals. If the diode is forward biased, it allows the electric current flow. Now, if we join the two types of semiconductors ptype and ntype together then a new device is formed called as pn junction diode. Draw the energy level diagram of a pn junction and explain how a junction barrier is developed across an unbiased junction. Pn junction diode working the pn junction forms a popular semiconductor device called pn junction diode. As shown in the figure, pn junction diode is a 2 terminal polarity sensitive device.
The valence band and conduction band in ntype material are slightly lower than that of ptype material. Forward bias current flows reverse bias no current flow. Why does the pn junction diode exhibit current rec tification. Such junctions show a pronounced rectifying behavior. In ideal conditions, this pn junction behaves as a short circuit when it is forward biased, and as an open circuit when it is in the reverse biased. A pn junction is the simplest form of the semiconductor diode. Feb 20, 2018 pn junction diode no applied bias duration. When a reverse voltage is applied to a conventional pn junction diode and the voltage is increased it will eventually breakdown and it will be subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. Vi characteristics of pn junction diode electronics post. Pn junction diode and characteristics of pn junction diode.
Diode current equation diode equation thermal voltage and ideality factor diode duration. A pn junction diode is a two terminal single crystal semiconductor device whose one side is doped with acceptors and other side by donors. The vi characteristics or voltagecurrent characteristics of the pn junction diode is shown in the below figure. In a step graded pn junction diode, the concentration of dopants both, in the n side and the p side are uniform up to the junction. Temperature coefficient of silicon junction transition capacity the transition capacity of a pn junction is a useful nonlinear capacitor because it. A pn junction diode is a twoterminal electronics element, which can be classified as either. It is the most fundamental device element that forms the basis of many electronic devices such as pn diodes, optoelectronic devices like lightemitting diode. P n junction diode theory working your electrical guide. Pn junction diode plays a vital role in our electronic fields, because of their unique property current flows in only one direction they are used in many electronic or electrical circuits like rectifiers, switches, clippers, clampers, voltage multipliers in this article, we will learn about what is a pn junction diode and how it works and also effect on pn junction diode with different. It is acting as normal diode while forward biasing.
These materials are ntype, having electrons are majority carrier and ptype material, having holes are majority carrier. P type and n type semiconductors, takenseparately are of very limited use. On the other hand, if the diode is reverse biased, it blocks the. Characteristics of junction diodes technical articles. This potential difference can alter the flow of majority carriers, so that the pn junction can be used as an opportunity for the diffusion of.
A pn junction diode is formed when a ptype semiconductor is fused to an ntype semiconductor creating a potential barrier voltage across the diode junction the effect described in the previous tutorial is achieved without any external voltage being applied to the actual pn junction resulting in the junction being in a state of equilibrium. Voltampere vi characteristics of a pn junction or semiconductor diode is the curve between voltage across the junction and the current through the circuit. The horizontal line in the below figure represents the amount of voltage applied across the pn junction diode whereas the vertical line represents the amount of current flows in the pn junction diode. Aug 28, 2014 16 the pn junction a pnjunction is formed at the boundary between the two regions ntype and p type semiconductors a diode is created. The recombination at the junction allows battery current to flow through the pn junction diode. Pn diodes forward bias, small signal model, bjts prof j. With proper biasing, pn diode allows current to flow in single direction. Zener diode is a pn junction diode specially designed to operate in the reverse biased mode. The shift of electrons from n side of the pn junction to holes annihilated on the p side of the pn junction produces a potential barrier voltage. If this current is not limited by the surrounding circuitry, the diode is very likely to be destroyed because of. Pn junction diodes can be obtained in a number of semiconductor materials the earliest diodes tended to be made from germanium, but most of them today are silicon diodes. A light emitting diode led is essentially a pn junction diode.
A pn junction is the metallurgical boundary between the n and pregions of a semiconductor crystal. This page of application notes section covers pn junction diode applications. The pn junction biasing the pn junction the diode trouble shooting. This pn junction can be used to operate and implement the functions of a diode because it can conduct considerable current in the forward direction and roughly no current in the reverse direction. In those 2 articles, i have tried to demystify pn juction and explain it in very simple words. It is the electrical characteristics of the junction rather than the semiconductor sample material that determines the electrical behavior of the entire structure.
Pn junction theory for semiconductor diodes electronicstutorials. The crosssection in figure aboveb looks a bit more complex than a simple pn junction. This lecture uncovers the basic science of semiconductor devices and solar cells, including pn junction and photovoltaic effects. However, unlike a resistor, a diode does not behave linearly with respect to the applied voltage as the diode has an exponential currentvoltage iv relationship and therefore we can not described its operation by simply using an equation such as ohms law.967 1370 1038 46 745 566 776 1145 888 1556 1400 425 1512 1494 1424 683 630 1254 1599 111 587 1029 548 416 517 218 549 756 1294 609 117